Monday, December 2, 2019

Virtual Education free essay sample

The processes by which learners learn and teachers teach are about as ever-changing as the seasons. Throughout time, pedagogical researchers have developed new methods for the educational process, but none have been quite as revolutionary or as controversial as e-learning. E-learning, often referred to as distance learning or online learning provides a platform that facilitates learning through communication without requiring a face-to-face contact in the same space and time. Optimistic commentators see a new world of an educational process: â€Å"Every learner can, at his or her own choice of time and place, access a world of multimedia material†¦immediately the learner is unlocked from the shackles of fixed and rigid schedules, from physical limitations†¦and is released into an information world which reacts to his or her own pace of learning. †[5] E-learning has, indeed, redefined education, but it has not replaced class-based learning. Teachers and schools cannot simply ignore this new technology. We will write a custom essay sample on Virtual Education or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Rather, e-learning can be used as an interactive enhancement to the established classroom. E-Learning introduces a new term to education, as Virtual Classroom, where students will be present with their teachers and co-learners in classroom virtually. This type of physically separated but logically connected education system can be termed as â€Å"Virtual Education† where the education is independent of the time and space of the learners. . What is Virtual Education Virtual education refers to instruction in a learning environment where teacher and student are separated by time or space, or both, and the teacher provides course content through the use of methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, the Internet, and videoconferencing. Students receive the content and communicate with the teacher via the same technologies. Characteristics of virtual education: Virtual education is a term describing online education using the Internet. This term is used in K-12 schooling, often to refer to cyber schools, and in higher education, where so-called Virtual Universities have been established. A virtual program (or a virtual course of studies) is a study program in which all courses, or at least a significant portion of the courses, are virtual courses, whether in synchronous (i. e. real time) or asynchronous (i. e. self-paced) formats. Virtual courses – a synonym is online courses – are courses delivered on the Internet. Virtual is used here to characterize the fact that the course is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through some substitute mode that can be associated with classroom teaching. That means people do not have to go to the real class to learn. Both the asynchronous and synchronous methods rely heavily on self-motivation, self-discipline, and ability for effective written communication. Although there is a long and varied history of distance education, the current intersection of technology as a means to facilitate real-time communication with community-centered interaction, and the increasing acceptance and employment of those developments in the broader culture, have positioned virtual class in a position of significant innovation and responsibility. In an educational environment in which school choice for families and students is valued, â€Å"cyber charter schools, as an outgrowth of the charter movement and the virtual school movement, represent a unique group of schools characterized by both their administrative model and their course delivery technology. † Instruction modes for virtual education: Many virtual study programs are mainly text based, using HTML, PowerPoint, or PDF documents. Any attempt to personalize the educational experience is essential in that students respond to personal attention and feedback. Today a wide spectrum of instruction modes is available, including the following: †¢Virtual Classroom: Live teacher instruction and feedback online that enables real-time voice interaction, whiteboard sharing, and breakout sessions to enhance a students learning experience. This provides students an opportunity to interact with the teacher as well as classmates by oral and written communication. †¢Virtual operating room: giving students a space to learn the basic induction procedure before stepping foot in the real-life operating room. †¢Hypertext courses: Structured course material is used as in a conventional distance education program. However, all material is provided electronically and can be viewed with a browser. Hyperlinks connect text, multimedia parts and exercises. †¢Video-based courses are like face-to-face classroom courses, with a lecturer speaking and PowerPoint slides or online examples used for illustration. Video-streaming technologies are used. Students watch the video by means of freeware or plug-ins. †¢Audio-based courses are similar but instead of moving pictures only the sound track of the lecturer is provided. Often the course pages are enhanced with a text transcription of the lecture. Animated courses: Enriching text-oriented or audio-based course material by animations is generally a good way of making the content and its appearance more interesting. Animations are created using Macromedia Flash or similar technologies. †¢Web-supported textbook courses are based on specific textbooks. Students read and reflect on the chapters by themselves. Review questions, topics for discussion, exercises, case studies, etc. are given chapter wise on a website and discussed with the lecturer. Class meetings may be held to discuss matters in a chat room, for example. Peer-to-peer courses are courses taught on-demand and without a prepared curriculum. A new field of online education has emerged in 2007 through new online education platforms. †¢Social Networking: Using Web 2. 0 technologies in virtual classrooms promotes increased social interaction, student-centered instruction and a problem solving curriculum. Students can address a problem that is oriented to a cross curriculum activity. Teachers will act as guides and resources, but it is up to the students to collaborate, discuss, review ideas, and present solutions. Communication and interaction Students in virtual education acquire knowledge in a unidirectional manner (e. g. by studying a video, reading a textbook chapter), this would be known as asynchronous instruction. Subsequent discussions of problems, solving exercises, case studies, review questions, etc. help the students to understand better what they learned before. This learning is delivered at the students pace, not instructed live by a teacher. Although asynchronous courses are student driven, teachers are often needed to act as a guide. Therefore teacher facilitators are often available to provide any assistance that may be needed throughout the course. Communication with teacher facilitators is accomplished through discussion boards and email. This communication may be needed at times to better explain a specific topic or make grade corrections. Students enrolled in virtual classrooms or synchronous courses still acquire the content via real life instruction. A real teacher in real time delivers virtual classroom instruction. The virtual classroom teacher uses the computer screen as the board delivering instruction by using videos, PowerPoint’s, or podcasts in conjunction with audio of the teachers voice. Students enrolled in the virtual classroom have opportunities for immediate teacher feedback and input while logged into class, just as they would in a traditional classroom. Students can also interact with other students via notes, texts, and emoticons. Additionally, many conferencing platforms used by virtual educators allow for students to work in small groups during class time, thus again mirroring the look and feel of a traditional classroom. Electronic media like a discussion forum, chat room, voice mail, e-mail, etc. are often employed for communication in both synchronous and asynchronous courses. Homework assignments are normally submitted electronically, e. g. as an attachment to an e-mail or uploaded to the LMS system in a view complete. When help is needed, lecturers, tutors, or fellow students, or a help desk are available, just like in a real university. The difference is that all communication occurs via electronic media. Virtual teachers are encouraged to use technology more in the classroom. They are also motivated to share their ideas and lesson plans with other teachers through wikis, blogs, facebook, etc. Communication in the synchronous virtual classroom is a collaborative learning experience. Students are encouraged to interact with peers through web-conferencing technologies. Small-group and whole-group collaboration is a suggested platform for virtual education. Communication can take place in real-time, i. e. during a class session. A small-group session is often referred to as a â€Å"Breakout Room. † This is a platform that allows real-time, social interaction between students. Students collectively work on a learning task designed by the virtual classroom instructor. Individual microphones, whiteboard tools (drawing rights for the group board), and/or notes are suggested ways students communicate with one another during live Breakout Rooms. Outside of the virtual classroom setting collaborative communication may also occur through various technologies; blogs, wikis, and/or multi-media tools. 3. Concept of E-Learning E-Learning can be defined an approach to facilitate and enhance learning by means of personal computers, CD-ROMs, and the Internet. It may be as simple as those teachers may simply post their material on Internet; students can read it online or can download it for further access [4]. Since student won’t be in a classroom with professor and classmates, he will need to be capable of independent learning. Instructor will provide him with a syllabus, course documents, and required readings. The interaction between the professor and the student will happen via e-mail, discussion board, forums etc. Since the class doesn’t meet in a physical space at a scheduled time, the student will have to learn independently. He will be responsible for keeping up with the assigned reading and completing assignments according to the timeline on the syllabus. The growing popularity of E-Learning has introduced new terms to education, as Virtual Classroom, where student will be present with his professor and fellow learners in a classroom. They will not be present physically in the classroom but connected to the classroom via Internet. 4. Concept of Virtual Classroom Just as the term virtual means a simulation of the real thing, Virtual Classroom is a simulated classroom via Internet, which provides a convenient communication environment for distance learners just like traditional face-to-face classroom. It is a network system to provide a distributed, near real-time electronic collaborative environment that allows video, audio, data and sensor participation by a worldwide set of participants in experiments undertaken n physically remote locations. These locations, due to cost, accessibility, safety or other concerns often do not permit communities to participate at the location. The Virtual Classroom is an integrated system of modern wireless networks that distribute video, audio, data and text within a remote experimental area and provides for the interconnection to remote participants in classrooms or indeed any worldwide location with a broadband Internet connection. Virtual Classroom provides a powerful platform for the support of experiments and education that is not limited to the physical classroom. A virtual classroom enables to bring learners from around the world together online in highly interactive virtual classes while greatly reducing the travel, time, and expense of on-site teaching/training programs. It can be used as a solution for live delivery and interaction that addresses the entire process of creating and managing our teaching-learning process. It facilitates instructor and student in teaching-learning events, such as a seminar, online discussion or a live training for employees in company. As in traditional classroom, there are professor and fellow learners present with the student; we have many participants present in virtual classroom. They can talk with each other as in the traditional classroom via chat. Similarly presenter uses whiteboard, gives notes/resources, gives presentation as given in traditional one. Thus, virtual classroom can be visualized as a classroom where a lecture or session is conducted using Internet. Fig. 1 shows a basic model of virtual classroom.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

10 Facts for Dissertation on Principles of Psychology

10 Facts for Dissertation on Principles of Psychology Has your professor assigned you with a task to write a dissertation on Principles of Psychology? If that’s true, then you’re in luck! Welcome to the first segment of our three-set guide which covers everything you need to know about writing a dissertation and Principles of Psychology, so you can compose a well-written dissertation. After all, who wouldn’t want to leave their professor awestruck and become one of their favorite students? We have divided our dissertation guides into three parts: Our first guide shares 10 facts for a dissertation on principles of psychology, which is very important when you want to support your assertions with solid evidence. It’s essential for you to read this guide first and then head on over to the other two guides. Speaking of the other two, the second guide introduces 20 psychology dissertation ideas that will work for you along with a sample essay (which is written on one of the 20 topics) to give you a peek at how a dissertation essay on Principles of Psychology is composed. Finally, our third guide, guide for a winner dissertation on principles of psychology, sheds light on how a successful dissertation is written on Principles of Psychology, what its methods are, how it’s outlined and formatted, etc. This would prove to be very useful in composing near-perfect and exemplary dissertation content. Without further ado, let’s get started: Psychology is one of the most popular phenomenons that can be found in public media, televisions, a part of everyday lives and an academic major for students. The word â€Å"Psychology† is derived from two Greek words; â€Å"psyche† which means life and â€Å"logos†, which means explanation. In other words, psychology is a study of art that explains life itself. It can also be seen as a scientific study of the mind and behavior of a particular subject. While most people know what psychology is, since they have been a part of (or sometimes heard of) psychological services being provided in the form of consultations and therapies, there are other fields of psychology that many are unaware of. Some of the most brilliant psychologists actually work in those fields. These include clinical psychology, environmental psychology, developmental psychology, experimental psychology, educational psychology etc. The duration it takes to become a psychologist depends on the nature of specialization. Most specialization required 10-12 years of education, including a doctorate. Most psychologists work in different places because they usually work behind the scenes and nobody knows that they are a part of a specific Speaking of organizations, there are several which have psychologists among the ranks including but not limited to laboratories, schools, businesses and hospitals where they are tasked with studying the behavior and reaction of people and sometimes, animals as well. The topics that most psychologists typically study are love, emotion, depression, hypnosis memory, drug addiction and alcohol, anger, politics, culture, prejudice and religion. To help psychologists better understand behavior, certain study methods are employed such as questionnaires, laboratory studies and interviews. Examining people’s behavior has been a profession ever since ancient civilizations came into existence. It is a basic instinct of the human mind to understand one another and adapt to the behavior of its society, culture, religion or the group surrounding him/her. Psychology is a study which involves thoroughly studying the human mind and behavior under different circumstances – to understand the conscience of a human for the better good. Wilhelm Wundt is considered the founder of psychology. In 1879 Germany, he started the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig. This laboratory was the first lab to be dedicated entirely to psychology, and is considered the first step towards modern psychology. Other researchers such as John Watson and Sigmund Freud are considered the pioneers in psychology and are helping take it forward. According to Leka and Houdmont, Occupational Health Psychology (OHP) is a growing and evolving field in this modern era. With more than 120 members, the Australian Psychological Society is renowned for its Occupational Health Psychology Interest Group. Psychobiology is a phenomenon which is sometimes misunderstood. This phenomenon studies the biology of the human psyche which includes the anatomy, pathology and physiology of the mind. The main purpose of psychobiology is to help determine the potential for psychological consequences, physiological bases and the psychological phenomenon that outlines some basic issues in psychobiology. There are two kinds of psychologists: research psychologists and psychologist-practitioners. Research psychologists contribute their time and energy to researching and using scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior. Practitioners, on the other hand, use that existing research to enhance the everyday life of human beings. While most people see psychologists and psychiatrists as the same profession, both of these professions are quite different. According to the Australian Psychological Society, a psychologist might work along with a psychiatrist and vice versa, but that doesn’t mean they are practicing the same profession. A psychologist studies only undergraduate (often postgraduate) psychology while a psychiatrist holds a master’s degree and specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of illnesses related to mental health. Still with us? Excellent! We are certain that you must have found the above facts useful, informative and interesting to include in your dissertation paper. You can easily prepare your paper around these facts and expand more on them to come up with a quality paper that leaves everyone impressed. Let’s head on to our next guide, 20 dissertation ideas that will work for you, where you are provided with 20 topics along with a sample essay so you can write a well-written dissertation paper. Don’t forget to read our final guide, guide for a winner dissertation on principles of psychology, which is absolutely essential to lay bare the basis of composing a successful dissertation paper. References: Charles Stangor, (2011) Introduction to Psychology Saylor.org  https://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/9/9.00SC/MIT9_00SCF11_text.pdf William Jones, The Principles of Psychology  http://izt.ciens.ucv.ve/ecologia/Archivos/Filosofia-II/James,%20William%20-%20The%20Principles%20of%20Psychology%20Vol.%20II.pdf William Jones, (1890) The Principles of Psychology  http://library.manipaldubai.com/DL/the_principles_of_psychology_vol_II.pdf Kantor, J. R. (1924). Principles of psychology.  http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2005-05009-000 Keller, F. S., Schoenfeld, W. N. (2014). Principles of psychology: A systematic text in the science of behavior (Vol. 2). BF Skinner Foundation. Troland, L. T. (1930). The principles of psychophysiology: A survey of modern scientific psychology, Vol 2: Sensation. Spencer, H. (1895). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). D. Appleton.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

10 Time Management Strategies That Are The Key to Life Success

10 Time Management Strategies That Are The Key to Life Success Feel stressed? Despite knowing you have the talent and the drive to achieve real success, do you just constantly find yourself on the wrong side of an insurmountable pile of tasks and often feel discouraged? Don’t worry too much. You just need a reboot of your time management skill set and develop better time management strategies. The trick is to organize your tasks and projects in a system that works for you and will work no matter what  stress a random crisis adds. You’ll find your stress level in general comes down considerably if you can find your own time management groove.Make the most of the 24 hours given to you each day with these 10 time management strategies.1. Learn to TriageStep one is to figure out what  your major goals and most pressing projects are, and then to put those at the top of your priorities list. Then rank the rest in order of importance. Start each day by assessing what you have to do and focusing your immediate energy on the most import ant tasks.2.  Make a List, Check It TwiceYou’ll have to focus your energy on big ticket  items first, but you also want to make sure you set up regular time to work on the things that get pushed to the bottom of the list so nothing falls through the cracks. Find a system that works for you that means you get the most pressing things done first, but also regularly cycle all the way through your list.3. Don’t be Afraid to DelegateOnce you have your system in place, there will be a few things that you can put on someone else’s desk. Don’t hesitate to do this. It’s a necessary leadership skill, and it will help you keep focused on the things requiring your unique attention.4. Set Deadlines, Even If They’re FakeYou’d be amazed at how much more you can get done when under deadlines. Make a calendar of when your projects are due to your superiors or coworkers. Then add in some deadlines of your own- just remember to hold yourself to them .5.  Practice the Best De-stressing Method You KnowNo matter how organized you are, stress can derail you if you let it spiral out of control. Find ways to relax and reconnect so physical and mental weariness never keep you off your game. Sleep!6. Pick Your BattlesDon’t obsess over the insignificant or unimportant. Figure out what really requires your energy and effort, and fix that spotlight where it most needs to be.7.  Don’t Stop Once You Find MomentumDo whatever you can to pick up speed in your new system, and then start riding that high. Continue picking up speed as you cross projects off your list. Don’t break your pace!8. Concentrate on  One Thing at a TimeMultitasking isn’t always the answer. You might find you’re most productive when you focus on one thing at a time and get more things done overall.9. Time YourselfIf procrastination is a problem for you, consider working in 25 or 45 minute intervals with regular breaks. That way you know you’re only ever a countdown away from a Facebook break, but you’re also guaranteed to power through some work. This works best if you turn off notifications on your phone. Put it in a drawer during your work intervals!10. Get Started- Now!You’ll never get anywhere in your system if you never set one up. Act now. Start early. And get it done. You’ll be delighted with the results.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Effect of the Revised Large-Scale Retail Stores Law on the Essay

The Effect of the Revised Large-Scale Retail Stores Law on the Japanese Distribution System - Essay Example Wholesalers – Intermediaries or middlemen who buy products from manufacturers and resell them to retailers. They take the same type of financial risk as retailers, since they purchase the products, keep them in inventory until they are resold to retailers, and may arrange for shipment to those retailers. Agents and/or brokers – Intermediaries who work between suppliers and retailers. They do not take ownership of the products they sell and are independent sales representatives who typically work on commission based on sales volume. They can sell to wholesalers as well as retailers. The Japanese distribution system accommodates the cultural and economic concerns of business establishments in Japan. This is such as business relationships are heralded as more important than implementing immediate and profitable business decisions that might trigger a strain in fulfilling social obligations to the participants in the distribution channels. Both Japanese and foreign observers, above all the United States, claimed that such intimate business relationships between an (in comparison to the United States) unusually high number of small players (both retail and wholesale establishments) not only formed a non-tariff barrier to foreign suppliers, but that such business relationships were protected by a legislation (the Large-Scale Retail Stores Law) that was in favor of small-scale establishments. The revision of the statute as demanded by the United States was therefore seen as hopeful solution to â€Å"modernize† the Japanese distribution system (less small-scale operations) and also pave the way for Japanese and foreign suppliers to enter the Japanese market. When Japan surrendered to the American supremacy on August 15, 1945, the Japanese economy was in almost near collapse1 and Japan had to finally accept foreign occupation to

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Planning and Enabling Learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Planning and Enabling Learning - Essay Example The 9th and the 12th academic year are the two most significant life paths that a student can pass through. Generally those two years guide the students to their chosen careers. To a greater degree though what will bring success in his/her life depends on the choice of subjects during these stages. Both parents and teachers play an immense role in directing children towards what education route to choose that would lead them to successfully university and career development. BTEC was established in 1984 and stands for the Business Education Council (BEC) and the Technician Education Council (TEC). BTEC course is based on continuous assessment rather than on annual exams. The BTEC course incorporates opportunities for work experience and gaining real life skills through case studies. BTEC course is designed to enhance the demands of employers in modern society and to allow students to quickly progress to their university degree. BTEC has proved its operational success and effectivenes s in the last 25 years and is gaining popularity as students are mo focused on day to day abilities and the course's flexible nature. Statistically, more than 1 million students enrolled on BTEC course for the academic year 2006/2007 (Edexcel BTEC Course, 2009).Institutions and students all around the world value the BTEC brand because it delivers excellent vocational qualifications that signify global recognition to the chosen area of studies. Practically it does not matter whether the programme is taught in London, Beijing or Dubai, since the quality assurance procedures assure that the candidates are awarded with standardized and internationally recognized qualifications. BTEC diplomas are organized to provide specialist work-related abilities in a wide range of sectors. BTEC courses equip students with valuable and lifelong skills and knowledge required for their career progress, and/or for the continuation of their vocational studies at higher academic level. During the BTEC course learners meet with professionals from the preferred industry in order to receive adequate consultation and the specialists to supervise the programme and progressive activities of the students. All BTEC seminars cover core and expert units, thus they have standard format and clear guidance about the requirements of the qualifications assessed. There is assessment criteria applied. The learners get Pass, Merit, or Distinction for each module of the programme. This means that the learners have to collect a number of points to obtain the overall Pass Grade for the programme. No external examinations apply in BTEC programmes (Edexcel BTEC course, 2009). When designing the cou rses providers work closely with employers from different sectors to create an inspiring atmosphere where students gain the skills they need to either start employment immediately after graduation or continue to a higher education. The subject areas that BTEC cover are: Applied Sciences Children's Care, Learning and Development Engineering Hospitality Languages Public Services and Security Art and Design Construction Hairdressing, Beauty and Related Therapies IT and Computing Media Sport, Leisure and Recreation Business, Management and Services Education and Training Health, Care and Counselling Land and the Environment Performing Arts and Music Travel, Tourism and Transport Services - Decide on the envisaged group and identify the barriers The envisaged focused group is 12 graders. The barriers that learners at BTEC course can face while planning and organizing his ideas are several. First of all, when one is attempting to clarify and comprehend the functions or operations of the studied course, students can rarely imagine properly the object itself. For example, it will be difficult to communicate how to use a computer for the first time if this is not visually demonstrated. In order for learners to study the subject, they have to get the object related to it. In this way they will experience it in various directions and will build

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Subject-Verb Agreement in Sindhi and English Essay Example for Free

Subject-Verb Agreement in Sindhi and English Essay Abstract In this paper, the researchers particularly investigated the subject verb agreement in Sindhi and English languages. English and Sindhi are two entirely different languages. There are differences in their phonology, morphology and syntax also. In this paper, the researchers examined the difference between one of the aspects of syntax, specially the difference between subject verb agreements in both the languages. Syntactically English is a head initial SVO language and Sindhi is a head Final SOV language. These two languages differ not only in phonology, morphology and syntax but they have also got difference in their origin. First the study shows a brief look at origin of Sindhi and English languages. Then subject verb agreement in Sindhi and English is analysed individually, afterwards there is a analysis of comparison between these two languages in subject verb agreement. Key words: Subject-verb, Agreement, Paryog, Head, Comparative, Syntax Introduction – Sindhi Sindhi is an Indo-Aryan language with its roots in the Lower Indus River Valley. Sindhi language is one of the most ancient languages of the world, which belongs to the Indus Valley Civilization. This language is the family member of the languages like Urdu, Persian, Sanskrit, Arabic, Hindi, and so on. Sindhi employs Perso-Arabic script and thus is written from right to left in contrast to the most of the Western languages which are written from left to right (Shaikh 1986). Language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 13:6 June 2013 Mubarak Ali Lashari and Amara Aftab Soomro Subject-Verb Agreement in Sindhi and English: A Comparative Study Sindhi takes its name from the river Indus, known in earlier times as the Sindhu. Today Sindhi is spoken in the province of Sindh, Pakistan where it is recognized by the government as the official language of the province. Nearly half of the population of Sindh province lives in rural areas, where Sindhi is the primary language. In the urban centers of Sindh, Sindhi competes for status and speakers with Urdu (the national language of Pakistan), and increasingly English. Sindhi is also spoken by about 2.5 million people in India, including major communities in Gujarat, Mumbai and Pune, where immigrants from Sindh relocated after the 1947 partition of India and Pakistan. Beyond the Indian subcontinent, Sindhi is spoken by large Diaspora communities in the United Kingdom and the United States, and around the world. English The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes were the Anglos, the Saxons and the Jutes. They crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed towards west and north by the invaders mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from Englaland and their language was called â€Å"Englics from which the words England and English are derived. English is a head initial SVO language, shows distinctive agreement only in the third person singular, present tense form of verbs, which are marked by adding -s (walks) or -es (fishes). The rest of the persons are not distinguished in the verb (I walk, you walk, they walk, etc.). In English, singular verb generally have an ‘s’ at the end, Plural verbs do not, and Nouns are the opposite, like; book (singular noun), walks (singular verb) and books (plural noun) , drive (plural verbs) etc. Language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 13:6 June 2013 Mubarak Ali Lashari  and Amara Aftab Soomro Sindhi Structure In Sindhi, the order of words in a sentence differs from English. The verb typically appears at the end of the sentence in Sindhi, while in English, it comes after the subject, but not at the end of the sentence. Syntactically, Sindhi displays a host of properties that are typical of Indic languages as a whole. Sindhi is a head-final SOV language. Postpositions are attested and affixation is largely suffixal. Sindhi verbs agree with their subjects in person, gender, and number. All inflection proceeds by way of affixation. Sharaf ud Din Islahi, in â€Å"The linguistic connections of Urdu and Sindhi languages† (Urdu-Sindhi ke Lisani Rawabit), affirms the above claims that Sindhi language is closely associated with the sub-continental languages. He confirms that Urdu and Sindhi are two such languages of the sub-continent in which much linguistic relations and agreements are found. Their phonetic system is almost same. Their grammar is closely related. Their vocabulary and semantics are inter-connected. Their scripture is almost same. Their literary traditions are also almost analogous. (pp. 61) â€Å"Sindhi language has taken birth from Sanskrit and Prakrit; and its letters of Alphabets are mostly from Sanskrit† (Shaikh 1986, pp,6). Now we will have a brief investigation of syntactical differences between Sindhi and English language. Syntactic difference between English and Sindhi. Structure dependency seems common in all the languages. This asserts that â€Å"knowledge of language relies on the structural relationship in sentences rather than the sequence of words.† (Chomsky 1988). Yet language differs in many ways; if knowledge of language consisted simply of unvarying principles, all human languages would be identical. The theory of Head parameters specifies the order of elements in a language. It asserts that some languages are head-initial and some languages are head-final. We are here concerned with English and Sindhi language, so the syntactic differences of both these languages are given below: 1. English is a head-initial language and Sindhi is a head-final language. Other differences are; 2. Sindhi is written from right hand rule, while English is written from left hand side. Example This is English. - (He Sindhi Ahe) †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Å  Ø ³ ÚÅ'ÙŠ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬3. In Sindhi language, the auxiliaries such as. ‘-†«Ã¢â‚¬â„¢-Ù ¿Ã™Ë†-‘ ,’-Ù ¿ -‘ ,‘-Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å -‘ ,’-Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ appear at the end of the sentence, while in English auxiliaries appear in middle of the sentence. Example This is my book. (He Muhjo Kitab Ahe) †«Ã˜ ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †« هي Ù… Ø ¬Ã™Ë† Ú ªÃ˜ ªÃ¢â‚¬ ¬ 4. In Sindhi language, verbs come after the object of the sentence, while in English language verbs come before the object of the sentence. Example I am eating. - (Aaon Khai Rahyo Ahyan) †«-Ø ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë† Ú © Ø ¦Ã™Å  Ø ±Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã™Ë† Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ 5. In Sindhi language, preposition comes after the object, while in the English language object comes after preposition. Example I am going to School. (Aaon School Danhn Wajji Rahyo Ahyan) †«Ã˜ ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë† Ø ³Ãš ªÃ™Ë†Ã™â€ž Ú  Ù† ن†¬ †« ÚÆ'ÙŠ Ø ±Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã™Ë† Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬Subject Verb Agreement Subject-verb agreement is a grammatical rule, which states that the subject and the verb must agree in a sentence. The subject normally refers to the noun or pronoun that tells us whom or what the sentence is about. A verb normally has a singular and plural form in the present tense. Agreement allows us to show who’s doing what in a sentence by indicating which part of the sentence go together. In languages where the verb is inflected, it often agrees with its primary argument (the subject) in person, number, and/or gender. The word whose form is determined by the other is said to be ‘agree’ with it. Agreement can occur over short or long distances in sentences (Neelman and Weeman 1999). For example consider the following sentence: John blames them In this sentence, the verb ‘blames’ agrees with the subject ‘John’. And the subject is licensed by agreement. There is no agreement between the verb and object ‘them’. Subject Verb Agreement in English Subject The word that represents the doer or agent of an action or set of actions in a sentence is either a noun (e.g., pen, car, Jessica etc) or a pronoun (e.g., we, they, he, she etc). It can be either a singular or plural. 1. Your sentence may have a compound subject. 2. Your subject will never be in a prepositional phrase. 3. Usually your subject comes before your verb. Verb The word/words represents the actions of a sentence (e.g., is, went, will place, have taken, will have been observed, etc.). Wren and Martin (2002) define verb as: â€Å"A Verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. Verb comes from the Latin verbum, a word. It is so called because it is the most important word in a sentence† (pp. 65). Subject verb agreement refers to the change in the form of a verb depending on its subject. Wren and Martin (2001) say that; The subject of the verb, like the personal pronouns, has three persons- the first, the second and the third. The subject of a verb may be first person (I, we), second person (You [singular], You [plural]), or third person (he, she, it, they). In English a verb changes form only when its subject is third person singular (he/she/it) and only in the present tense. Present Tense Singular Plural I eat They eat You eat You eat He, She, It eats We eat Past tense Singular Plural I ate They ate You ate You ate He, She, It ate We ate The subjects above given are not underlined. The verbs are bold and underlined. Now look at the present tense conjugations of verbs, because that is where you will see a difference. In the present tense, all of the different subject uses â€Å"eat† except for the third person subjects â€Å"he†, â€Å"she†, and â€Å"it†. If you are using what are called â€Å"regular verbs†, you will always add this -s after the third person subject. Therefore you can say â€Å"I like apples†, â€Å"You like apples,† but if you use â€Å"She†, you must say â€Å"She likes apples†. English grammar is not quite this simple in practice because people don’t always use the words I, She, He, They, We, You, and It. Usually they are more specific rather simple. For instance say, â€Å"My sister teaches a class at college† or â€Å"Joe and Jessica always dress well†. Now look at the subject and than decide what type of word of pronoun it is. â€Å"My mother† is a â€Å"She†, so the verb must include an –s or –es. â€Å"Joe and Jessica† are â€Å"they†, so the verb will not have the –s or –es ending. Regular vs. Irregular Verbs This is a little more complicated because there are two types of verbs: Regular and irregular. Regular verbs such as walk, play, jump and always follows –s as stated above.; and in the past tense form you will add – ed to make walked, played, jumped. But irregular verbs do not follow this pattern. Below are given three most common irregular verbs and their conjugations, which you will have to memorize in order to use them correctly. To Be Present Tense Singular Plural I am We are You are You are He, She, It is They are Past tense Singular Plural I was We were You were You were He, She, It was They were To Have Present Tense Singular Plural I have We have You have You have He, She, It has They have Past tense Singular Plural I had We had You had You had He, She, It had They had To Do Present Tense Singular Plural I do We do You do You do He, She, It does They do Past tense Singular Plural I did We did You did You did He, She, It did They did Some Additional Rules * When you have a subject with both the singular or plural noun like â€Å"Mr, Anderson and the students†)., make the verb agree to the closest one. For instance, Jessica and the students like their university. * Make sure that contradictions like â€Å"isn’t/ aren’t, don’t/ doesn’t, haven’t etc† agree with the verb. For instance, Joe doesn’t like macroni. (Does not) The Andersons don’t like pizza. (Do not) * Words that come between a subject and its verb do not affect the number (singular or plural) of the subject. You must determine which word is the sentences subject and then use it to decide whether the verb needs an â€Å"-s† ending. For instance, . A computer with a variety of memory chips serves a special purpose. Computers with a variety of memory chips serve a special purpose. * If the verb comes before the subject, it still need to be conjugated. For instance, There are three children with the cat in the garden. * If you see who, which or that as a subject, than use the type of the verb that best suits the noun the who, which or that stands for. For instance. Maira is the type of person who is always silent. Maira is one of those girls who are always silent. Subject Verb Agreement for Compound Subjects A compound subject is made up of two or more subjects that are connected by a coordinating conjunctions. Both the subjects have the same verb. Language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 13:6 June 2013 Mubarak Ali Lashari and Amara Aftab Soomro * When the compound subject is connected by ‘and’. It is treated as plural. For instance, Rabia and Sadia are my sisters. Ahmed and Aslam are absent. * A compound subject that refers to one thing/idea/person or to something considered as one unit is treated as singular. The producer and director of the film has won an award. (When one person is both the director and producer). * When there are two singular nouns joined by â€Å"or† or â€Å"nor,† use the singular verb. This is because you are looking at the noun separately, not as a combination. For instance, Neither Max nor John wants to do singing The mango or the apple juice is all right with me. * A compound subject made up of a singular subject and plural subject connected by ‘or’ or ‘nor’ is treated as follows. 1. Singular, if the subject close to the verb is singular. For instance, Either the students or the teacher has taken the globe from here. (Teachersingular) 2. Plural, if the subject close to the verb is plural. Neither the ship nor the boats are in sight. (Boatsplural) * When the subjects joined by or/nor are of different persons. The verb agrees with the nearer subject. Either he or I am guilty. Neither you nor they are responsible. * Two nouns qualified by each or every, even though connected by and, requires a singular verb. Every boy and every girl was given a packet of sweets. Specific Cases of the Subject-Verb Agreement * A collective noun can be treated as a singular or a plural depending on the context. * Collective nouns like â€Å"group, team, committee, class, family† treat a group as a single entity and therefore, should use singular verbs. For instance, 1. The group is cooperative. 2. The hockey team has great players. * It is treated as a plural when the components of the noun are considered  individually. For instance, The committee have issued individual dissenting notes. The board of directors are divided on the implementation of the reforms. * Always match the indefinite pronouns such as: â€Å"much, someone, anyone,  everyone, anything, nothing, something, everyone, each, every, either, neither, no one, one, other etc with singular verbs. For instance, Every one is anxious about me. Anyone who has got a problem, please stand up. * Some nouns like â€Å"news, civics, mumps, physics, mathematics† are singular and should be matched with the singular verbs. For instance, Mumps is a terrible disease No news is good news. * Some nouns like â€Å" spectacles† ending in ‘s’ however are treated as plural even  though they refer to one thing or pair .for instance His spectacles are broken. * Some indefinite pronouns such as: â€Å" few, many and several† are always plural. For instance, Several new products were introduced recently Few girls were absent yesterday. * Certain words such as: â€Å"any, all, most, more, none, enough, and plenty† can either be singular or plural. 1. They are singular, when they refer to one thing or person or to a portion of something and, hence they a singular verb. For instance Most of the work is over. 2. They are plural, when they refer to a number of individual things, persons, and places and hence they take a plural verb. For instance, Most of my neighbours are government employees. ( several) * ‘Many’ is singular as it modifies with a singular noun. For instance, Many students tries hard to pass this entrance exam. * Titles of books, magazines, etc are singular. For instance, The Arabian Nights is still read by many people. * Words or phrases that express an amount of money, fraction, distance, or  interval of time are singular. For instance, Twenty kilometres is a long distance. One hundred rupees is enough for this labour. * Class nouns denoting clothing, furniture, cutlery, stationary, etc. are singular. This stationary is expensive. Davidson (2003) states that sometimes it is not the immediate subject, or what seems to be the subject of the verb that determines whether the verb must be singular or plural, but some other words or phrase in the sentence. For example: The boy who is playing outside is my son. (‘the boy’ is the antecedent of the relative pronoun ‘who’). Subject Verb Agreement in Sindhi In Sindhi , the verb agrees with the subject and its number (either singular or plural), gender (masculine or feminine) and persons ( pronoun) .The word ‘Kartar’ or ‘karta’ means ‘Faail’, which we can say Subject in English and the ‘Kartary’ means ‘Faailey’( Kam Kandarr †«Ãš ªÃ™â€¦ Ú ª Ø ¯Ãšâ„¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ ) which we can say ‘Subjective’ in English language. The verb in Sindhi can be defined as; a word that shows to be, to do, to have or an action on something, that is said to be a verb or in short a word which tells something about a person or thing etc. (Baig1992, pp.2). Verb which in Sindhi language is called â€Å"Fael† has two main kinds. According to Allana (2004), â€Å"All the Dravidian languages have two kinds of verbs Fael Mutaadi and Fael Lazmi† (pp. 262). They are same as 1. â€Å"Fael Lazmi† (Intransitive verb) and 2. â€Å"Fael Mutaadi† (Transitive verb) same as in English language. In Sindhi, the agreement is said to be a ‘Nisbatoon’ or ‘Paryoog’, Paryoog of Sindhi language is taken from Sanskrit language which means â€Å"Nisbatoon‟ or â€Å"Melap†, or we can say agreement in English language. which shows the verb agreement with other components There are three types of ‘Nisbatoon’ or ‘Paryoog’ in Sindhi language. 1. Kartary paryoog (Subjective agreement). 2. Karmani paryoog (Objective agreement). 3. Bhawei Paryoog (Neuter agreement). Here we are concerned with the ‘Kartary Paryoog’ (Subjective agreement). 1. In Sindhi language, showing the number agreement of a verb with its subjects. - (Chhokro khedde tho â€Å"Boy plays†)-†«Ãš ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™Å  Ù ¿Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †«-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ªÃ¢â‚¬ ¬ (Chhokra kheddan tha â€Å"Boys play†) †«-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ª Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš  Ù ¿Ã¢â‚¬ ¬* In the former sentence, the subject is singular in number, than the verb agrees to it as ‘khede tho’. * In the later sentence, the subject is plural in number, the verb agrees to it as ‘khedan tha’. Let’s look at some more examples; (Ho Masjid wayo â€Å"He went to mosque†) †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë† Ù…Ø ³Ã˜ ¬Ã˜ ¯ يو†¬ (Uhe Masjid waya, â€Å"They went to mosque†)- †« هي Ù…Ø ³Ã˜ ¬Ã˜ ¯ ي†¬* In the former sentence, when there is a singular subject as â€Å"Hu† (He), than it takes singular verb as ‘wayo’. †«( يو†¬went) * In the latter sentence, when the subject is plural in number as â€Å"Uhay† (They), than the verb changes from ‘wayo’ to ‘waya’ particularly in Sindhi language. 2. All the Sindhi nouns belong to one of the two noun genders, feminine and masculine. A verb in the clause agrees to the gender of the noun. For example, the verb ‘laugh’ agrees with the gender of the subject. (Chhokro khilyo â€Å"Boy laughed†) †«Ãš ©Ã™â€žÃ™Å Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †«Ãšâ€¡Ã™Ë†Ãš ªÃ¢â‚¬ ¬ (Chhokree Khilee, â€Å"Girl laughed†) †«-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ª ÙŠ Ú ©Ã™â€žÃ™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ Masculine nouns commonly occur with the vowel endings -o in the singular , and with the –aa in the plural. And feminine noun commonly occur with the vowel endings – i in the singular and – oon in the plural . Verb agreement in ‘Kartary Paryoog’ changes according to the gender of the subject. For instance, (Chhokro khedyo huo â€Å"Boy had played)-†«Ãš ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™Å Ã™Ë† Ù‡ و†¬ †«-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ªÃ¢â‚¬ ¬ (Chhokri kheddi hue, â€Å"Girl had played)- †«Ãšâ€¡Ã™Ë†Ãš ª ÙŠ Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™Å  Ù‡ ي†¬* In the former sentence, there is a masculine gender ‘- †«( ’ڇوÚ ªÃ¢â‚¬ ¬boy), the verb agrees to it as ‘-†«Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãš ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™Å Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ * In the later sentence, there is a feminine gender ‘-†«( ’-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ª ي†¬girl), the verb agrees to it as ‘-†« .’Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬Let’s look at some more examples. (Ahmed School wayo, â€Å"Ahmed went to school†).†« Ø ­ Ø ¯ Ø ³Ãš ªÃ™Ë†Ã™â€ž يو†¬ (Rabia school wayee, â€Å"Rabia went to school†)- †«Ã˜ ± Ø ¨Ã˜ ¹Ã™â€¡ Ø ³Ãš ªÃ™Ë†Ã™â€ž Ø ¦Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬* In the former sentence. If there is a masculine gender (Ahmed), the verb agrees to it as ‘-†«Ã¢â‚¬â„¢- يو†¬ * In the later sentence, when there is a feminine gender (Rabia), the verb agrees to it as ‘-†« ’- Ø ¦Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬instead of ‘-†«.’- يو†¬ 3. The changing of the verb agreement of Sindhi language according to the persons (pronoun). For instance, (Aaon khedandus, â€Å"I shall play†)- †«Ã˜ ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë† Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯Ã˜ ³Ã¢â‚¬ ¬- (Aseen khedandaseen, â€Å"We shall play)- †« Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€  Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯ Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬- (Hoo khedandee, â€Å"She will play†) †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë†Ã˜ ¡ Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬Ã™Å½ (Uhey khedanda, â€Å"They will play†) †« هي Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¬Language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 13:6 June 2013 Mubarak Ali Lashari and Amara Aftab Soomro Subject-Verb Agreement in Sindhi and English: A Comparative Study 487 ï‚ · In the first sentence, when the pronoun is first person singular , the verb stand for it as ‘-†«.’-Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯Ã˜ ³Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ ï‚ · In the second sentence, the subject is first person plural, the verb agrees to it as a ‘†«.’-Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯ Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ ï‚ · ï‚ · In the third sentence, the subject is third person singular, the verb agrees to it as ‘—†«Ã¢â‚¬â„¢-هوØ ¡ Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ ÙŽ In the fourth sentence, the subject is third person plural, the verb agrees to it as ‘ †«Ã¢â‚¬â„¢-Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ Differences between the Subject Verb Agreement in Sindhi and English Here are some of the areas where English and Sindhi subject verb agreement differs. Like: Agreement with Person Present Tense English Sindhi I speak †«Ã˜ ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë† Ú ³Ã˜ §Ã™â€ž Ø §Ã˜ ¦Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã˜ §Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ you speak †«Ã˜ ªÃ™Ë† Ú ³Ã˜ §Ã™â€ž Ø §Ã˜ ¦Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ he speaks †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë† Ú ³Ã˜ §Ã™â€ž Ø §Ã˜ ¦Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ She speaks We speak They speak †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë†Ã˜ ¡ Ú ³Ã˜ §Ã™â€ž Ø §Ã˜ ¦Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã˜ ¯Ã™Å  Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ ÙŽ †«Ã˜ ³Ã™Å Ã™â€  Ú ³Ã˜ §Ã™â€ž Ø §Ã™Å Ã™Ë† Ù ¿Ã˜ §Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Å  Ú ³Ã˜ §Ã™â€ž Ø §Ã˜ ¦Ã™Å Ã™â€  Ù ¿Ã˜ §Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ Now we can see from the above given examples that in English a verb changes form only when its subject is third person singular (he/she/it) and only in the present tense. Now look at the present tense conjugations of verbs, because that is where you Language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 13:6 June 2013 Mubarak Ali Lashari and Amara Aftab Soomro Subject-Verb Agreement in Sindhi and English: A Comparative Study 488 will see a difference. In the present tense, all of the different subject uses â€Å"speak† except for the third person subjects he, she, and it. If you are using what are called â€Å"regular verbs†, you will always add this -s (speaks) after the third person subject. But in Sindhi, all of the different subjects agree with different verb forms, as the first person subject ‘- †« ’-Ø ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb ‘- †« ,’Ú ³ Ù„ Ø ¦Ã™Å  Ø ¯ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬and ‘-†« ’ Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb ‘- †« ’Ú ³ Ù„ Ø ¦Ã™Å  Ø ¯ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬instead of ‘- †«.’-Ú ³ Ù„ Ø ¦Ã™Å  Ø ¯ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ The second person subject ‘- †« ’Ø ªÃ™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb ‘-†« .’-Ú ³ Ù„ Ø ¦Ã™Å  Ø ¯ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬And the third person subject ‘-†« ’ -هو†¬agrees wi th the verb ‘-†« ’-هو-‘ , ’-Ú ³ Ù„ Ø ¦Ã™Å  Ù ¿Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬uses with the verb ‘-†« ’Ú ³ Ù„ Ø ¦Ã™Å  Ù ¿Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬and ‘-†« ’- هي†¬uses with the verb ‘- †« ’-Ú ³ Ù„ Ø ¦Ã™Å Ã™â€  Ù ¿Ã¢â‚¬ ¬and In Sindhi main verb comes with the auxiliary verb like ‘- †« . ’-Ù ¿Ã¢â‚¬ ¬here ‘-†« ’-Ú ³ Ù„ Ø ¦Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬is a main verb ‘ and ‘-†« ’-Ù ¿Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬is an auxiliary verb. Other auxiliary verbs are like; ‘- †« ’-Ù ¿Ã™Ë†-‘ ,’-Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å -‘ ,’-Ù ¿Ã¢â‚¬ ¬etc Past Tense English Sindhi†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ I visited †«Ã˜ ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë† Ú ¯ ÙŠØ ³Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ you visited †«Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †«Ã˜ ªÃ™Ë† Ú ¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ he visited †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë† Ú ¯ يو†¬ She visited †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë†Ã˜ ¡ Ú ¯ ي†¬ ÙŽ We visited They visited †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Å  Ú ¯ ÙŠØ §Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ Now we can see from above given examples that in English, a verb doesn’t changes form for the first, second or even for third person subject in the past tense, you can see that, all of the different subjects agrees with the verb â€Å"visited† . But in Sindhi, the case is different. The entire different subject uses different verbs in the past tense too. As for the first person subject ‘- †« ’Ø ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬uses the verb ‘-†«Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãš ¯ ÙŠØ ³Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ and ‘-†« ’ Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb ‘-†«.’-Ú ¯ ÙŠ Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬and the second person subject ‘- †« ’-Ø ªÃ™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬uses the verb ‘-†«Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †« .’-Ú ¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¬And the third person subject ‘-†«(-هو†¬He)’ uses the verb ‘-†«,’-Ú ¯ يو†¬ ‘Hu’a (She)’ uses the verb ‘-†« ’-Ú ¯ ي†¬and ‘- †« ’Ú ¯ ي†¬agrees with the verb ‘-†«.’- هي†¬ Future Tense English Sindhi. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †«Ã˜ ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë† Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ù†Ø ¯Ã˜ ³Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ I will drink †«Ã˜ ªÃ™Ë† Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ù†Ø ¯Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ you will drink †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë† Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ù†Ø ¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ he will drink She will drink †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë†Ã˜ ¡ Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ù†Ø ¯Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ ÙŽ We will drink †«Ã˜ ³Ã™Å Ã™â€  Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ù†Ø ¯ Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Å  Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ù†Ø ¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ they will drink Now we can see from above given examples that in English, a verb doesn’t change its form for the first, second or even for third person subject in the future tense, you can see that all of the different subjects agrees with the verb ‘will drink’. But in Sindhi, the case is different in future tense also. The entire different subject uses different verbs in the present, past and even in future tense. As the first person subject ‘- †« ’-Ø ¢Ã˜ ¦Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬uses the verb with it as ’-†« ,’-Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ø ¯Ã˜ ³Ã¢â‚¬ ¬and ‘-†« ’- Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬uses the verb ‘†« ,’- Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ø ¯ Ø ³Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬the second person subject ‘- †« ’-Ø ªÃ™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬uses the verb ‘-†« ’-Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ø ¯Ã™Å Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬and the third person subject ‘-†« ’-هو†¬agrees with the verb ‘- †« ’-هوØ ¡-‘ ,Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ø ¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb ‘-†«Ã¢â‚¬â„¢-Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ø ¯Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ and ‘-†« ’- هي†¬agrees with the verb ‘- †«Ã¢â‚¬â„¢-Ù ¾Ã™Å  Ø ¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ Agreement with Gender The boy had cry †«Ãšâ€¡Ã™Ë†Ãš ªÃ˜ ± Ø ±Ã™â€ Ã™Ë† هو†¬ The girl had cry †«Ãšâ€¡Ã™Ë†Ãš ªÃ˜ ±Ã™Å  Ø ±Ã™â€ Ã™Å  Ù‡ ي†¬ Now you can see in the above given examples that in English, the subject for both the genders (masculine and feminine) as ‘the boy’ and ‘the girl’ agrees with the verb ‘cry’. But in Sindhi, the masculine subject ‘- †« ’-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ªÃ¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb as ‘- †«Ã˜ ±Ã™â€ Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †« ’-هو†¬with vowel ending –o, but the feminine subject ‘-†« ’-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ª ÙŠØ ¡Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb ÙŽ as ‘-†« ’-Ø ±Ã™â€ Ã™Å  Ù‡ ي†¬with the vowel sound ending –i. for more understanding another example is: The dog ran †«Ãš ªÃ˜ ªÃ™Ë† ÚŠ ڙيو Ù‡ و†¬ The cat ran †«Ã™ »Ã™â€žÃ™Å  ÚŠ Ú™ÙŠ Ù‡ ي†¬ ‘Dog’ is the masculine gender and ‘ cat is the feminine gender, In English the verb doesn’t change its form for different gender subjects. As in above examples, the verb agrees to both the gender subjects ‘dog’ and ‘cat’ as ‘ran’. But in Sindhi, the verb changes its form for different genders. As the gender (masculine) subject ‘†« ’-Ú ªÃ˜ ªÃ™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb as ‘-†« ,’-ÚŠ ڙيو Ù‡ و†¬and the feminine gender subject ‘-†« ’-Ù »Ã™â€žÃ™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with the verb as ‘-†« ’-ÚŠ Ú™ÙŠ Ù‡ ي†¬with the vowel endings –o and –I respectively. Agreement with Numbers The boy plays †«Ãšâ€¡Ã™Ë†Ãš ªÃ˜ ± Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™Å  Ù ¿Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ The boys play †«Ãšâ€¡Ã™Ë†Ãš ªÃ˜ ± Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš  Ù ¿Ã˜ §Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ She eats †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Ë†Ã˜ ¡ Ú ©Ã˜ §Ã˜ ¦Ã™Å  Ù ¿Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ ÙŽ They eat †«Ã™â€¡Ã™Å  Ú ©Ã˜ §Ã˜ ¦Ã™â€  Ù ¿Ã˜ §Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ In English, we will always add this -s after the singular third person subject he, she, and it, and a verb has a singular and plural forms in the present tense only. ‘the boy’ is a ‘he’ so the verb must include an –s or –es ending like ‘plays’. and for plural subject as ‘the boys’ refers to â€Å"they†, the verb will not have the –s or –es ending like; ‘play’. Same is the case with â€Å"She† agrees with the verb as ‘eats’, and ‘They’ agrees with the verb as ‘eat’. And in Sindhi, the subject ‘- †« ’-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ªÃ¢â‚¬ ¬is a singular in number. Then the verb agrees to it as ‘-†« ,’-Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš Ã™Å  Ù ¿Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬But if the subject ‘- †« ’-Ú‡ÙˆÚ ªÃ¢â‚¬ ¬is plural in number than the verb agrees to it as ‘- †« .’-Ú ©Ã™Å Ãš  Ù ¿Ã¢â‚¬ ¬Same is the case with the singular subject ‘-†« ’-هوØ ¡Ã¢â‚¬ ¬agrees with ÙŽ the verb as ‘-†« ’-Ú © Ø ¦Ã™Å  Ù ¿Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬and the plural subject ‘-†« ’- هي†¬agrees with the verb as ‘- †«.’-Ú © Ø ¦Ã™â€  Ù ¿Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ Similarities in Some Cases Here are some of the areas, where English and Sindhi share a common rule for subject verb agreement like: * Every verb should agree with the subject in number and person. For instance, English: They like sweets. (They=plural, like=plural). Sindhi: Uhay mitha pasand kan tha. (Uhay=plural, pasand kan tha=plural) * When a compound subject is connected by ‘and’, it is treated as plural in both Sindhi and English. For instance, English: Rabia and Sadia are my sisters. (Are= plural) Sindhi: †« =-Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™â€ -(Ø ± Ø ¨Ã˜ ¹Ã™â€¡ Û ½ Ø ³Ã˜ ¹Ã˜ ¯Ã™Å Ã™â€¡ Ù… Ø ¬Ã™Ë† Ú€ÙŠÚ »Ã™Å Ã™Ë† Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™â€ Ã¢â‚¬ ¬plural) * If two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing, the verb treated as singular in both Sindhi and English. For instance, English: The producer and director of the film has won an award. (Has won= singular). Sindhi: †« = -Ú ©Ã™ ½Ã™Å Ã™Ë†-( -Ù Ã™â€žÃ™â€¦ Ø ¬Ã™Å  Ù‡Ø ¯ ÙŠØ ªÃš ª Ø ± Û ½ Ù ¾ ڊيوØ ³ يو Ø ±ÃšÅ  Ú ©Ã™ ½Ã™Å Ã™Ë†Ã¢â‚¬ ¬singular). (When one person is both the producer and director). * Words joined to a singular subjects by words such as ‘with’, ‘as well as’ etc are treated as singular in both Sindhi and English. English: Sanskrit as well Arabic was taught there. (Was taught = singular). Sindhi: -†«Ã™Å  Ø ¯Ã™Å  Ù‡ ي†¬ †«= ÙŠ Ø ¯Ã™Å  Ù‡ ÙŠ-( .-Ø ³ Ø ³Ãš ª Ø ª Ø ªÃ™Ë†Ãšâ„¢Ã™Å  Ø ¹ Ø ¨Ã™Å  Ø ªÃ™Å  Ù ¾Ãšâ„¢Ã™â€¡ Ø ¦Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ singular). * When the subjects joined by the ‘or’ or ‘nor’ are of different person. The verb agrees to with the nearer in both Sindhi and English. English: Neither you nor he is responsible. (He = singular, is = singular). Sindhi: †« = -هو-( -نه Ø ªÃ™Ë† نه Ø ¦Ã™Å  هو ميو Ø ± Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬singular, -†« = -Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬singular) English: Either he or I am guilty. (I = singular, am = singular) Sindhi: †«Ã˜ ´ Ù… Ø ¯ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †«Ã˜ ±Ã™Å  م†¬ †« = -Ù… -( .-ÙŠ Ø ªÃ™â€¡ هو ي†¬singular, †«=-Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ singular). * When the plural noun is a proper name for some single object or some collective unit. It follows a singular verb in both Sindhi and English. English: The Arabian Nights is still a great favourite. (Arabian Nights = plural, is = singular) Sindhi: -†«( Ø ¹ Ø ¨Ã™Å Ã™â€  Ù† Ø ¦Ã™ ½Ã˜ ³ ÚÆ' Ø ª Ø ¦Ã™Å Ã™â€  Ù ¾Ã˜ ³ Ø ¯ Ú ª ÙŠ ÙŠ Ø ¯Ã™Å  Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬Arabian Nights = plural, -†« = -Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬singular) * The collective noun can be treated as singular in both Sindhi and English , when the noun is considered as a single unit. English: This group is cooperative. (Is = singular) Sindhi: -†«Ãš ª Ø ¯Ãšâ„¢ Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †« = -Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å -( .- هو Ù ½Ã™Ë†Ã™â€žÃ™Ë† Ø ªÃ˜ ¹Ã¢â‚¬ ¬singular) * Words and phrases that express an amount or money, fraction, distance, or interval of time are singular in both Sindhi and English. English: Twenty kilometres is a long distance. (Is = singular) Sindhi: -†«Ãš  Ù…Ù  Ø µÃ™â€žÃ™Ë† Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬ †« =Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å -( ÙŠ Ù‡ Ú ªÃ™â€žÃ™Ë†Ã™â€¦Ã™Å Ã™ ½Ã¢â‚¬ ¬singular) English: One hundred rupee is a large sum. (Is = singular) Sindhi: -†« = -Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å -( -Ù‡Ú ª Ø ³Ã™Ë† Ø ± Ù ¾Ã™Å Ã™â€¡ Ú Ã™Å  قي Ø ª Ø ¢Ã™â€¡Ã™Å Ã¢â‚¬ ¬singular) Conclusion From above analysis, we have examined that the subject and the verb agrees in a sentence. Agreement allows us to show who’s doing what in a sentence by indicating which part of the sentence go together. And through above analysis of comparison between Sindhi and English verb agreement, we have come to know the difference as well as the similarities in subject verb agreement in both languages. ========================================================= References Ahmed, S , Shah, Z. Qurat-ul-Ain (2004) , Syntactical Translation System for English to Sindhi translation. A paper presented in National Conference on Emerging Technologies 2004. Retrieved from http://www.szabist.edu.pk/Publications/Session%20VI%20Paper%20No%201%20(P %20112-115).pdf Bajwa.F (-), The fundamental of English Grammar and composition. Nela Gumbal, Lahore: Zia Publishers Barber, C. (1964). The Story of language. Pan piper/ Pan books Ltd. Cook.J. V. (1996). Chomsky’s Universal Grammar. Hong kong, Blackwell Publisher. Cole, J.S (2006), The Sindhi language. Asian Educational Services. Catherine (2013), BBC learning English, subject-verb agreement. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/radio/specials/1844_gramchalleng e47/ Language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 13:6 June 2013 Mubarak Ali Lashari and Amara Aftab Soomro Subject-Verb Agreement in Sindhi and English: A Comparative Study Ping, L. G. (2012). An Alternative method of teaching subject verb agreement. The Teacher English, Vol. XLI(2) December 2012. Retrieved from http://www.melta.org.my/ET/2012/vol2/MELTA-9.pdf Guha, I. Guha, K. (2005), The Grammar tree, Essentials of Grammar and Compositon. Oxford University press. Jokhiyo, M (2008), Sojhro, Sindhi Grammar Jo Majmu’o. Kandiaro, Roshni Publishers. Lashari, M. (2011). Syntax in action, verb agreement in Sindhi language. language in India journal Subject verb agreement, writing centre module retrieved on 10/04/2013 from http://www.greenriver.edu/Documents/student-affairs/tutoringresources/wc/subject-verb-agreement-module.pdf Triumph, E. (1872). Grammar of the Sindhi language compared with Sanskrit and Prakrit. F.A Braukhaus. Murray, D. Rockowitz, A. C. (). The verb system, Subject verb agreement, Grammar Mechanics, The Hunter college reading/writing centre. Retrieved on 10/05/2013 from http://rwc.hunter.cuny.edu/reading-writing/online/subject-verb-agreement.pdf Wren, P.C. Martin, H. (2002). High school English grammar and composition. Ram Nagar, New Delhi: S. Chand Company Ltd

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Napoleon Essay -- European History Military Generals Essays

Napoleon â€Å"I live only for posterity, death is nothing, but to live without glory is to die every day† (Lefebvre 43). Napoleon was driven by his desire for glory and ambition and his ascension was tremendous. Born in Corsica, his family moved to France, in Marseilles, when he was only a child. From the state of a â€Å"lieutenant,† at the age of sixteen, to the one of emperor in 1804, till reigning over the European continent after his conquest of Prussia, his ascension was not only due to the events that occurred during his life, but was also due to his ambition and his tremendous genius. His genius was both military and political. Napoleon was a military genius because of his career rapidity. He went to the School of Officers in Paris. At the age of sixteen he was already a lieutenant. At Toulon, this battle enabled him to climb quickly the echelons in the military. As Chandler states, Napoleon gave military orders to produce a large number of guns. These guns and mortars provided Napoleon the possibility to attack the different forts situated in places that were overlooking the harbor. Because of this production, Napoleon was able to produce enough guns to attack the place without having a great loss in his army. Horne declared the recapture of the port became possible because the previous attacks enabled Napoleon to place a number of guns and mortars in good position to fire the British fleet commanded by Hood (17). By the success of his capture, the British fleet left the harbor and Napoleon gained great recognition by the military and was soon after promoted to the rank of â€Å"gà ©neral de brigade.† Napoleon’s military genius is perceived through the new division of the army. Gates state... ..., Georges. â€Å"A Romantic Tempered by Realpolitik.† Kafker & Laux. Napoleon and his Times: Selected Interpretations. Malabar Florida: Robert E. Krieger Pub. Co., 1989. Napoleonic Europe 1812. Map. Atlas of European History. By Bartholomew, Edinburgh. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. 148-49 Rothenberg, Gunther. â€Å"Military Affairs.† Kafker & Laux. Napoleon and his Times: Selected Interpretations. Malabar, Florida: Robert E. Krieger Pub. Co., 1989. Rowe, Michael. â€Å"Debate: Napoleon and the Post-Revolutionary Management of Sovereignty.† Modern and Contemporary France 8.4 (2000): 510-13. Academic Search Premiere. EBSCO. Roesch Library, Dayton. 04 Nov. 2002 Vandal, Albert. â€Å"The Restoration of Order and National Unity.† Kafker & Laux. Napoleon and his Times: Selected Interpretations. Malabar Florida: Robert E. Krieger Pub. Co., 1989.